Wednesday 28 April 2010



This little known fact must be the clarion call for the Israeli Government.

Facts can be found in the 1920 SAN REMO DECLARATION which decreed Palestine as mandated for the Jewish national home. Arabs were given what has become Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. The Arabs approved and agreed to this proposal which was voted into international law at the LEAGUE OF NATIONS. It was later reconfirmed by the UNITED NATIONS, again with Arab agreement.

This legal right may drive diplomats and anti-Israel opponents to distraction. It is, however, irrefutable and enshrined in established international law. Whatever happened since, including changes brought about by politicians, are an infringement on the rights granted to the Jewish state as far back as 1920.

Whatever has happened since cannot over ride international law.

Whatever Palestinians, or their supporters, may demand or claim, they have no internationally legal rights to govern any of the territory.

Only Israel has the legal right to the land and it is theirs alone to grant to others, or not.

Please use this basic and irrefutable point when discussing or promoting Israel's interests and rights.

Saturday 24 April 2010

Another nail in the coffin for British Jews.

Enjoyed the Leaders Debates in Britain? Found Nick Clegg cute and appealing? Think again!
Behind the Obama-clone charisma and charm there lurks a danger for Jews in Britain.

Nick Clegg, Liberal Democrat leader, who is coming into the upcoming British elections in an enhanced position is close, very close, to Nadhmi Auchi.
If you care about shady characters behind those who rule I suggest you indulge yourself in a crash course on Mr. Auchi.
His personal fortune in excess of two billion Sterling makes him Britain's 32nd richest person. He has lived in Britain since 1980.

Nahmi Auchi supports Hamas, providing aid and comfort to the terror group.
Auchi has funded the notorious George Galloway in his 'Viva Palestina' aids convoy with which he tried to break the blockage on Gaza.
Auchi recently said, "In the past the Arab community has not actvely participated  in British political life (!). I believe this is changing and we are now close to finding a party that is not only sympathetic to our views but whose policies actively seek to address our concerns".
Nadhmi Auchi made these remarks at a fund raising banquet in honour of Nick Clegg.

Auchi established the Anglo-Arab Organisation to promote understanding between Britain and the Arab world.
Auchi funds one of the most anti-Israel, anti-Semitic, websites in Britain.
Auchi's Middle East Online website promotes material from well-known anti-Israelis, including Jeff Gates who runs the anti-Israel 'Criminal State' blog.

Lord Steel, former Liberal Democrats leader, is a director of Auchi's main company, General Mediterranean Holdings, the centre of his global empire that includes hotels, leisure, pharmaceuticals, and telecommunication firms.

The banquet was organised under the Anglo-Arab Organisation banner.  Alan Duncan, a Conservative Shadow Minister, is listed as a patron.

At the banquet, Clegg said that 'the Arab community's values sit deep in the soul of the Liberal Democrats. I feel that there is a conjunction of aspirations, hopes, and values between members of the British Arab community and many of the things that the Liberal Democracts stand for today'.

The Liberal Democrat leader has condemned Israel's action in Gaza saying "We will not stand aside when unimaginable human suffering is taking place".

Nahmi Auchi was convicted of fraud in the French Elf-Aquitaine oil company trial in 2003. He was given a suspended sentence.
Auchi is also involved in the case of a convicted Chicago fraudster, Tony Rezko, who was involved in a land deal with Barack Obama. A US court revoked Rezko's bail when prosecutors discovered that Auchi had wired Rezko $3,500,000 from a Lebanese account.
Auchi is banned from into the US.  Since 2003 Auchi has invested heavily in Iraq.

In short, Nick Clegg is a puppet of Arab interests and connected with an Arab billionaire and fraudster.

Clegg is not alone in his party for siding with Muslim and anti-Israel causes. The tongue of Jenny Tonge has exposed his party of openly anti-Israel sentiments.
More recently William Wallace, importantly the Liberal Democrat foreign affairs spokesman, openly boasted in front of the Jewish Board of Deputies that he had meetings with members of the Hamas terror organisation.
He also threatened to torpedo the renewal of the Israel-EU trade agreement, thereby hinting at support for a boycott of Israel.

Britain may already be lost to Muslim domination and interests but if Clegg is close to Downing Street power, as is likely following the televised debates, then caring british Jews can already hehe nails being driven into the coffin of their vital interests in that lost nation.

My pre-Presidential predictions about Obama were spot on. They derived from a study of his close associates. As with Obama, you judge your politicians by those they associate with and are influenced by. These Clegg predictions will also, sadly, affect Israel and British Jewry.
As did Americans, I expect the Brits to go for the cheesecake smiles and ignore the subplot.

A closing warning to Israel. Beware of the country with whom you share classified intelligence information. the leaders may be closer to your enemies than you think.


Speaking as an Israeli, what is Obama all about? Glancing through an edition of the new York Times I read that Sudan President al-Bashir, the man wanted by the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity relating to the genocide in Darfur, is bragging that 'even America is becoming a member of my National Congress Party!'
As journalist Nicholas Kristof wrote, 'When a man who has been charged with crimes against humanity tells the world that America is in his pocket, it's time to review your policy'.
Obama once announced that he would apply pressure on Sudan to avoid another humanitarian catastrophy in Darfur. Now, it seems, Obama has backed down prior to and during the recent Presidential elections leaving the dictator Hussein al-Bashir that everything is fine and he can control the White House.

The Obama Administration would have us believe that they have things under control in Iraw and that their guy recently won the national elections. If that is so, why have I just read of secret torture prisons being run by the Iraqi security force, trained by the US, and under the leadership of Prome Minister Maliki.  That, under Obama, is fine while the US President complains about Quantanamo, and then does a u-turn.

America demanded that Syria remove itself from the axis with Ahmadinajad's regime in Iran. Snubbing America President Assad paid an official visit to Tehran and then invited both Ahmadinajad and Hizbollah leader Nasrallah to Damascus. Instead of facing the wrath of America, Obama informed the Syrian leader that he will shortly be sending a new Ambassador to Syria. Some punishment!

And finally, Iran. After more than a year of hearing Obama and Clinton issuing dire warnings at Iran we are now hearing mumblings of how the Obama Administration can learn to live with a nuclear Ahmadinajad.

The one country in the Middle East that is getting slammed by Obama is Israel. The latest piece of misinformation being fed by his disinformation team is that Israel is costing America in blood and treasure. Obama needs reminding that it is Israel that has been paying in blood and treasure by being on the frontline of the same battle that American citizens are facing, namely the war against Islamic terror and domination.

It was no oversight that Obama visited Egypt and Turkey on a Middle East trip, yet could not find the time or reason to stop by in Israel.

Obama's tough, even insulting, stance against Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu during a recent White House meeting was deliberately planned and reflects Obama's attitiude to the Jewish state.

Israel is finding itself boxed in both by its increasingly radical neighbours but also by an American Administration that has hardened its stand against the one true democracy and ally in the region.

No other reason  except the core beliefs of the new American president are behind the switch in the US Middle East and global policy.  These core beliefs are registered in the political upbringing and connections that formed the political mind of Barack Hussein Obama.

One result of Obama's public disparagement of Israel has been a circling of the wagons in the Jewish state around their leader.
Obama has succeeded in moving rank and file Israelis to the right of the political spectrum in support of a leader and a country that now feels itself facing very real existential threats and completely isolated.

Friday 23 April 2010


Those who make the case for Israel's raison d'etre claim biblical, historic, and religious reasons for Israel's right to exist.

These are all good and strong reasons in support of the Jewish State. There is, however, an equally concrete and indisputable claim that is often gone unexpressed.

Israel has the legal right to the land that goes back ninety years. This right is recognised in international law. It was declared and agreed by recognised international bodies and even approved by the Arabs.

Anyone disputing that Israel legally has title over Palestine should be referred to the 1920 SAN REMO CONFERENCE.

Following World War One and the defeat of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, world leaders met at the Italian seaside town of San Remo to settle the issue of disputed territories both in Europe and in the Middle East.
The Jewish cause was represented by the Zionist organisation led by Chaim Weitzmann. The Arab cause was led by King Faisel.

It was decided that what was the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East would be divided into two entities. One would be given to the Arabs. This land included what is today Lebanon, Syria, and Iraq. The other would be designated to be the National Home of the Jewish People. This land included what is today Israel, what is known as the West Bank, Jordan, and the Negev Desert.

This division was approved by all the participants, including both the Jewish and Arab representatives.
It was voted as the San Remo Declaration and passed over to the League of Nations where it was past into international law.

When the League of Nations became the United Nations one of the first rulings of that new body was the confirmation in law of the San Remo Declaration.

As a result of Arab violence, and compensation to King Faisel, Winston Churchill abused the San Remo Declaration by giving Faisel the Hashemite Kingdom on what became TransJordan. This constituted two thirds of the land that legally belonged to the mandated national home of the Jewish people.

Since 1967 we have seen the developing identity of the Palestinian people. They may be making claims to nationhood on territories belonging to Israel, but they have no legal rights to any of this land according to any known international law.

Israel allowed the P.L.O., led by Yasser Arafat, to administer terroritory from a base in Ramallah. This was granted to them by Israel.
Israel unilaterally removed its citizens from the Gaza Strip as a peace gesture to the Palestinians. This, again, was granted to them by Israel.

Israel has ceded, and may do so in the future, some of its legal territory for the benefit of a burgeoning Palestinian entity. This does not mean that Palestinians, or any Arab entity, have had any rights returned to them. They have no internationally recognised legal rights to claim sovereignty over any of this land. This legal right is exclusively owned by Israel as the national home of the Jewish people.

Palestinians, and their supporters, may cry 'Occupation'. The fact is that Israel occupies the land bequeathed to it under international law.

Further reading, for anyone in doubt, should include the findings of international lawyer, Dr. Jacques Gauthier.
Gauthier is an international human rights lawyer. He has no predisposed bias. He is not Jewish. Gauthier has devoted a remarkable twenty five years of constant research to discover who owns Jerusalem.
His dispassionate discovery is covered in a tome of one thousand two hundred pages containing three thousand three hundred footnotes.
His conclusion, based on international law, is that Jerusalem legally belongs to the Jewish people.

Palestine? It is within Israel's legal rights to give. There are no legal Palestinian rights to take or to demand any territory.

Tuesday 20 April 2010

Don't mess with Jews. We're smart.

A young hot lawyer sits next to an elderly Jew on a long distance flight. The lawyer thought this was another opportunity to make money so he nudged the Jewish passenger and asked if he wanted to play a game.
"No", said the Jew, " I just want to get some sleep".
"But it's an easy game", insisted the lawyer. "I ask you a question and if you don't know the answer you give me five dollars. Then you ask me a question and if I don't know the answer I give you five hundred dollars. It's fun!"
This catches the Jews attention and reluctantly agrees to play for a couple of questions.
The lawyer asks the first question. "What is the distance from Earth to the the Moon?"
The Jew doesn't say a word. He reaches into his pocket hands over a five dollar bill.
Now it's the Jews turn. He asks the young lawyer "What goes up a hill with three legs and comes down with four?"
The lawyer researches on his laptop. He emails his smart friends with no success. He gives up and wakes up his Jewish neighbor who is now dozing and hands over five hundred dollars.
The Jew pockets the money and goes back to sleep. The lawyer is going crazy so eventually he shakes his fellow passenger and asks "OK. What goes up a hill with three legs and comes down with four?"
The Jew shrugs, dips in his pocket, hands over five dollars to the lawyer, and goes back to sleep.
Don't mess with us Jews! We're smart!

Tuesday 13 April 2010

The Holocaust and its relevance today.

I watched as Israel stopped working, driving, studying, jogging, to observe a moment of total silence in respect for the six million Jews who were targeted and slaughtered by an Anti-Semitic regime only decades ago.
It was Holocaust Day in Israel.

A British friend remarked that he was profoundly moved by the depth of emotion and memory that the nation devoted to that day.
I told him that, for us, the significance is that the Holocaust was not a historic event but that its darkening shadow looms over us today.

Anti-Semitism is not something that was eradicated together with the Jews in the ovens of Auschwitz. Rather it was put to rest, only to emerge in multiple forms years later.

Today we see the emergence of both overt and covert Anti-Semitism.

Overtly, we saw the rise, this week, of the far Right Jobbik Party that gained 26 seats in the Hungarian Parliament.
Their platform blames the Jews and gypsies for the economic plight of their country, not the failure of the previous Socialist Party. Hungarian Jews are now living in fear.

Overtly, we heard, this week, Bishop Giacomo Babini blame the Jews for the pedophile scandal that is rocking the Catholic Church. He accused Jews of a 'refined Zionist media attack against the Church'.
He called Jews 'a Deicide people' and inferred that the Holocaust took place 'because Jews strangled Germany economically through usury'. His remarks, together with others including Bishop Williamson's Holocaust denial statements, clearly show that Anti-Semitism is alive and growing in strength within the Catholic Church.

TV viewers saw the spectacle of an Israeli TV crew filming a Holocaust story in Warsaw being spat on by a passerby in the Polish capital. This anti-Semite uttered profanities, not against Israel, but against Jews in front of the TV camera.
This happened at the site of the Warsaw Ghetto this year - 2010.

Anti-Semitic attacks doubled in 2009. Enlightened, multi-cultural, countries such as Britain and even Canada showed some of the largest growths in attacks against Jews.

Many European countries enact stringent laws to combat bias and hatred against Islam yet tolerate, excuse, and even encourage Anti-Semitism.
Israel is blamed when Jews are attacked. Many will protest that it's not the Jews they hate, they simply want to condemn Israeli policies against the Palestinians. This is covert Anti-Semitism.

When Israel is singled out for condemnation, while wholesale slaughter and human rights abuses by other countries are ignored, this is Anti-Semitism.

When emotive language and imagery is used to delegitise Israel alone, this is Anti-Semitism.

When Jews are not allowed free speech on campuses in defense of Israel, this is Anti-Semitism.

When the Jerusalem String Quartet are not allowed to play classical music at the Wigmore Hall in London, this is Anti-Semitism.

When a Jewish Member of Parliament, who is openly anti-Israel, says that 'right wing Jewish millionaires control the Conservative Party' this is Anti-Semitism, even when quoted by a Jew.

Mahmoud Ahmadinajad, the Iranian leader, proudly boasts that the elimination of the Jewish state is his holy duty. Diplomats play down the rampant anti-Semitism of the Iranian regime.

For Jews in Israel, however, the rantings of Ahmadinajad are straight out of Mein Kampf.
For Israelis, Ahmadinajad is the personification of Adolph Hitler.

The international community may dilute his threatening statements, they may learn to live with containment of the Iranian nuclear program, they may adopt a Chamberlain-type posture and kid themselves that Ahmadinajad does not want to take over the world starting with the Jews, but Israel will say 'Never Again!'

One piece of imagery had a profound affect on Israelis this Holocaust Day. We saw a grandmother, a survivor from Auschwitz, visit her grandson at an Israeli air foce base. Her grandson is a fighter pilot in the Israeli Air Force.
Together with two other pilots he flew his Israeli fighter jet in salute over the Auschwitz concentration camp.

Decades ago, six million Jews did not have the protection of a strong and determined Jewish state.
They thought they had the protection of the Allies who flew over Auschwitz in 1944 yet did nothing.

Today, Israel is strong in the knowledge that its leadership, both political and military, at a time when the threat approaches and the world is as impotent and as appeasing as it was in 1938, they will not allow another Holocaust.

As Israel heads from Holocaust Day towards Independence Day, 'Never Again' will be Israel's overriding policy.

Wednesday 7 April 2010

I do not believe in America any more.

Professionally, I am in real estate. In the last year I have repeatedly been asked to invest in American property and real estate on the assumption that prices have fallen and this is a good time to get in the market.
I refuse to do so. I have lost all faith in America's ability to get themselves out of their mess.

In fact, I am convinced that the Obama plan is to totally destroy the capitalist and free market system and replace it with his Marxist vision expressed as his 'fundamental redistributiuon of wealth'.

I studied him from childhood to presidency. Everything about him wreaks of Marxism. All his closest advisers are Leftists, Communists, Marxists, or lovers of Mao.
Andy Stern - "Workers of the World Unite!"
Van Jones - Avowed Communist.
Ron Bloom - Power Comes from the Barrel of a Gun!"
Anita Dunn - I think of Mao every day!
Mark Lloyd - I Support the Important Revolution in Venezuela!

Obama studied and then taught the principles of Saul Alinsky, author of 'Rules for Radicals' a prime for Realistic Radicals.
Yet Obama recently publicly sneered in a TV interview "People call me a Socialist but when called on they can't show any evidence of it". Really Mr. President? I live in far off Israel and I can prove it.

When Obama promised to fundamentally change America I knew what he meant. What has shocked me is that the majority of Americans did not do their homework and, today, are sleepwalking their way to beyond Socialism.

With the deliberate breakdown of the American economy and the rapidly rising debt that big government will impose on the people I am convinced that America's worst days are ahead of it. The power of the dollar will sink to an all time low.

I have no faith in the American economy. I have even less faith in the current American president or his advisers.

This is not the time, not the environment, for me to be encouraged to invest in America. I do not believe in America any more.

Sunday 4 April 2010

In Britain, conspiracy theories go mainstream.

An English friend of mine remarked recently that he was worried about the impending rise of the British National Party in Britain at the next General Election.

In Britain, had a politician made a statement saying "there are long tenacles of Israel in this country who are funding election campaigns and putting money into the British political system for their own ends" you would assume that these views represent the BNP, or one of the radical Islamic groups that have taken root there.

Either way Jews in Britain, obliquely attacked via Israel, are suffering increasing anti-Semitism. They have been getting it from the left and from the right.
Now they are getting it full front and central.

In fact, these remarks were made by Martin Linton, who has been the Labour Member of Parliament for Battersea since 1997.

Worse still, there are promient Jews in Britain who are openly anti-Semitic.
Non-Jewish slanderers at least adopt a high moral posture and insist that they are defending the poor Palestinians, and some of their best friends are Jewish.

Not so with Jewish conspiracy theorists. Take Gerald Kaufman, for example. This veteran Labour Parliamentarian recently said that Lord Ashcroft owned most of the rival Conservative Party "and right-wing Jewish millionares own the rest!"

Who said you can't be Jewish and anti-Semitic?

Criticism of Israel can be considered as legitimate. I, myself, indulge in this pastime occasionally.
When, however, it is couched in emotive terms and conspiracy theories you can always detect the basic anti-Semitism - even when spouted by a Jew.

No conspiracy theory has been quite as blatant as the expulsion of an Israeli diplomat from London on the grounds that Israel cloned British passports.
No evidence was produced to prove this theory.

No evidence was produced to prove that Israel, or anybody for that matter, was responsible for the assasination of a Hamas mastermind in Dubai. Have you noticed that the Dubai Chief of Police has suddenly gone silent since he promised to show us the forensic evidence in his possession, and was unable to do so?
The reason is because there is none.

David Miliband's public criticism and punishment of Israel was made with no corroborating evidence.
Needless to say that Miliband is a young, ambitious, and Jewish politician.

Could this conspiracy theory follow in the footsteps of Linton, Kaufman, Galloway, and other British politicians who are currying favour with their constituents, at Israel's and Jewish expense, in the run up to the next British elections?

My conspiracy theory is as valid as Linton's, Kaufman's, and Milliband's.

One way or the other, anti-Semitism, disguised as criticism of Israel through conspiracy theories, has gone mainstream.

Friday 2 April 2010

The Weakening of America and how it affects the Middle East.

It was by accident that Benjamin Netanyahu walked into a White House trap.
The White House had resisted his repeated requests for an audience with the President during his March visit to America.

The Obama team was upset with Israel over untimely declarations about construction in Jerusalem.
Rahm Emmanuel's famous phrase 'Never let a crisis go to waste!' echoed into the equation. Obama got together with his advisers and Israel's Prime Minister walked into the Oval Office and got slammed.

It was all part of the Obama Repositioning of America plan.

Enemies are to be tolerated as an initial softening up prior to future relationship building. Allies are to be downgraded to assist in this process, starting with Israel.

Israel has told America that there is no Palestinian partner that can deliver a permanent peace, but America is not listening.
Meanwhile, the Palestinians have President Obama as their chief negotiator with Israel.
Why should they agree to direct talks with Israel when America encourages them into indirect talks with the Obama team? They see that Obama intends to deliver their current demands directly and toughly with Israel. They have no need to climb down from the tree. They like it up there.

But it goes way beyond a direct slap at Israel.

Behind closed doors the theory of containment is being adopted. In simple words, 'let's learn to live with a post nuclear Iran'.
They are talking about how to contain an Iranian regime with a nuclear capability.
They are coming up with the propostion that Iran would never use the bomb, rather than decisively acting to prevent Iran from obtaining this weapon of mass destruction.

While verbally calling for watered down sanctions against Iran the Obama Administration is coming to terms with the looming possibility that Iran cannot be prevented from obtaining the bomb.

Israel will never tolerate a containment policy to a nuclear Iran. The threat is too direct and imminent.

Intelligence reports from Israel say that the United States is preparing a position paper that will open the way for a dialogue with the Islamic terror organisation in Lebanon, Hizbollah.

Hizbollah murdered many Americans (see list below) in numerous terror attacks. Hizbollah was complicit with Syria in the Beirut explosion that killed Lebanese President Rafik Hariri. It has been summoned to give evidence to the United Nations Special Tribunal over this incident. Yet John Brennan, President Obama's chief adviser on terrorism, is calling for 'a more flexible approach' to Hizbollah.

This acceptance of Hizbollah is coming via the Center for American Progress think tank.
They will claim evidential support from important officials, sections of the british Government, and leading NGOs.
They will dismiss the conclusions of any Israeli or pro-Israeli expert as being biased.

Despite Syria encouragement to its neighbours to strenthen their links to Iran, The Obama Administration has decided to send a new ambassador to Damascus.

The dangerous and false assumption of the Obama panel of experts is that these US moves will lead to a softening of anti-American policies and actions by radical Islamic actors.
The foolish summation is that this change of strategy will calm the political environment and remove the current and future threats against America.

It is interesting, in advance of a proposed containment of a nuclear Iran and an US embrace of Hizbollah and potentially Hamas, to look at what is happening in the region right now.

America is perceived as having lost its will to take on challenges beyond Iraq and Afghanistan. This is portrayed as weakness in this part of the world.
It is noticed that Obama has been unable to muster a coalition for sanctions against Iran.
Recent Obama moves have weakened the US bond with Israel, and Israel now appears isolated and surrounded by increasingly powerful and influential Islamic partners.
Europe's rejection of has thrown them back into the arms of Iran and Syria. Turkey is, today, stridently more Islamic.

Lebanon's President Saad Hariri, son of the slain president, despite the fact that Syria had killed his father, went cap in hand to Damascus to pay homage to President Assad.
He has recently been followed by Druse leader, Walid Jumblatt, whose own father was murdered by Assad Senior, the father of the current Syrian President.
Walid Jumblatt had been fighting Hizbollah in Lebanon as recently as 2008. Now, he feels deserted by the West, namely the US.
He, and Hariri, clearly see which way the political winds are blowing and are now alligning themselves with Iran via Syria.

Even Saudi Arabia, the fair weather friend of America, is losing faith with the US. They have been making advances to Syria. It is clear to them that America has been impotent in moving Syria away from Iran.

Middle Eastern countries have been making their own calculations and moving their allegiances towards Iran and Syria and away from the West.

As Jonathan Spyer, a senior research fellow and Arab world expert, put it.
"This is the clearest indication yet of where current Obama and Western policy of punishing allies and rewarding enemies is likely to lead".

Israel has been watching these moves. It knows that America has been unable to forge sanctions against Iran. Israel has made its own direct approaches to Moscow and Beijing. It is clear eyed over where it stands today and what it must do regarding the Iranian threat. It is alone.

The Jewish message of 'Better to take heed of your enemies threats than listen to the promises of friends' has driven Israel since its inception. Even in its most perilous years Israel has acted alone. Unlike other countries, it has never asked allies to risk their lives in its defense.
With impotence over sanctions, and now the changing relationship, Israel will determine to act alone, without warning the US.
It will not wait until Iran has the nuclear capability. It will not wait until Iran is able to supply Hizbollah, Hamas or Syria with a dirty bomb. It will act in a method and at a time of its choosing.
Nothing is more certain than plans are being drawn up in Israel's command and control centers.

Hizbollah Attacks Against Americans.
(This list is limited to attacks resulting in death. It does not include hijackings, kidnappings, and terror attacks that did not kill Americans).

April 18,1983. Beirut, Lebanon. A truck bomb exploded in front of the US Embassy killing 93 employees and wounding 120. HIZBOLLAH, with financial backing from Iran, carried out the attack.

October 23, 1983. Beirut, Lebanon. A truck-bomb crashed into the lobby of the US Marines HQ killing 241 US soldiers and wounding 81. HIZBOLLAH carried out the attack with help from Syrian intelligence and financed by Iran.

January 18, 1084. Beirut, Lebanon. Malcolm Kerr, president of the American University in Beirut was killed by two HIZBOLLAH gunmen outside his office.

March 16, 1984. Beirut, Lebanon. HIZBOLLAH kidnapped William Buckley. His body was never found.

April 12, 1984. HIZBOLLAH bombed a restaurant used by US servicemen in Torrejon, Spain.

September 20, 1984. Beirut, Lebanon. A HIZBOLLAH suicide bomber killed 23 and injured 21 at the US Embassy in Beirut.

February 17, 1988. CIA chief, William Buckley, was kidnapped by HIZBOLLAH while driving from Tyre to Nakura. After an unsuccessful ransom demand Higgins was murdered by his HIZBOLLAH captors.

November 8, 1991. Beirut, Lebanon. HIZBOLLAH detonated a 100 kg car bomb killing one person at the American University in Beirut.